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Resource Effectiveness and the Circular Economy: how to strengthen Sweden's competitiveness in a future with finite resources

Resource Effectiveness and Circular Economy project logotype

The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA) has always been a meeting place for Sweden’s future. It builds bridges between the business community, the public sector, academia and the political sphere.

Its two-year project "Resource Effectiveness and the Circular Economy" was aimed at making Sweden more competitive in a future with finite resources, in line with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, by economising on resources and developing new technologies, services and business models in five areas:

Read the synthesis report, marking the completion of the project, which presents the most important conclusions, recommendations and action plans from the five subprojects.

 

 

Circularity Gap Report - The Netherlands

The Dutch economy is 24.5% circular. Measures in four key sectors can triple the national circularity rate and help the government achieve its ambitions for a fully circular economy by 2050.

On 3 June, Circle Economy launched the Circularity Gap Report for the Netherlands. The report shows that the Netherlands is a circular frontrunner: the country's circularity rate is three times higher than the global rate of 8.6%. Consuming 221 million tonnes of materials each year, the Netherlands retrieves one quarter from non-virgin, secondary sources. However, if the government is to achieve its ambitions of full circularity by 2050, a major overhaul of the national economy, including jobs, will still be necessary.

How circular economy practices help to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals

How circular economy practices help to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals

SDGs and Circular Economy

 

Holland Circular Hotspot is a private-public platform in which companies, knowledge institutes and local authorities collaborate to promote and support international collaboration and knowledge exchange on Dutch circular economy, and the Netherlands Enterprise Agency, a government agency for sustainable, agricultural, innovative and international business development and growth, have come together to share insights, networks and resources to help kickstart circular developments that will boost the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Circular examples from various market segments closely linked to SDGs such as agri-food, manufacturing and the built environment are included in the brochure next to cross-sectoral topics such as consumer goods or plastics.

Scaler Quick Guides – Helping industries increase efficiency through resource sharing

SCALER

SCALER provides mechanisms to accelerate the journey towards efficient and quick implementation of industrial symbiosis in the European process industry. They do this by developing action plans and adapted solutions to industrial stakeholders and communities.

SCALER works closely with a wide range of stakeholders including industrial networks, consultancies, researchers and policy makers at various geographic and political levels, to deliver practical tools and guidelines for industry actors engaging in resource efficiency, reuse and sharing.

To achieve this goal, SCALER is developing a set of reports and guides. They offer insights into how businesses can start industrial resource synergies with other companies to minimise their waste and create more value from their production.

Situational Analysis Report of Circular Economy in the Data Centre Industry

Situational Analysis of the Circular Economy in the Data Centre Industry

Type:

Author: 
WeLOOP, TND, LSBU, GreenIT Amsterdam, Wuppertal Institution, Team2, Operational Intelligence, Dialasheep, SIMS Recycling Solutions, Aliter Network
Publication Date: 
04/2020
Country: 
France, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom

Language for original content:

Contact: 
Naeem Adibi
Carolina Szablewski
Nil Atmaca

The Data Centre Industry (DCI) is one of the most important pillars of current technological and economic developments.

In DCIs, more than fifty different materials can be found per product, including ferrous, non-ferrous metals, precious metals (PM), platinum group metals (PGM), rare earth elements (REE), plastics and/or ceramics, some being considered as Critical Raw Materials (CRMs).

This assessment aims to study DCI design and material composition (specifically servers and switches), as well as to analyse their performance in a circular economy and provide recommendations for ecodesign guidelines.

The circular economy: Going digital

Going digital

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Author: 
Annika Hedberg, Stefan Šipka
Publication Date: 
03/2020
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
European Policy Centre
Rebecca Castermans

The EU is currently engaged in two transformations that could change our economy and society for the better: circular economy and digital transformation. If managed well, and in unison, they could help the EU address one of its greatest challenges: to build a sustainable, green economy that is competitive on the global stage.

The publication by the European Policy Centre (EPC) builds on the EPC Task Force on the Digital Roadmap for Circular Economy findings to make recommendations for the EU institutions for the next five years.

The TF explored the linkages between digitalisation and the circular economy, the opportunities created by data and digitally-enabled solutions, and the challenges associated with harnessing their full potential for the transition to a circular economy.

EASAC Report - Packaging plastics in the circular economy

Packaging plastics

Type:

Author: 
Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina
Publication Date: 
03/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Contact: 
EASAC

Packaging plastics can offer an almost infinite range of options for manufacturers, both in terms of function and design. Their durability and resistance to degradation means that if they ‘leak’ into the environment, they stay there. Leakage has been increasing rapidly and its detrimental impact, especially on the marine environment, has attracted wide public and political concern.

EASAC established in 2018 an Expert Group to look at scientific aspects of plastics packaging and the circular economy. This report is the result of an 18-month investigation and reviews the negative consequences of the current linear economy for plastic packaging, the scope for improvement towards a more circular pattern and options for increasing recycling rates and reducing leakage into the environment.

2020 Report on the circular economy in Italy, with a focus on the bioeconomy

Author: 
Circular Economy Network (CEN) in collaboration with ENEA and Fondazione Sviluppo Sostenibile
Publication Date: 
03/2020
Country: 
Italy

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Scope:

Contact: 
Laura Cutaia
Camille Aneris

The 2020 Report on the Circular Economy in Italy, developed by CEN (Circular Economy Network) in collaboration with ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and Fondazione Sviluppo Sostenibile, analyses the state of play of the circular economy in Italy with, this year, a particular focus on the bioeconomy.

The report was presented during the 2nd National Conference on the Circular Economy livestreamed on 19 Marchfrom Rome. It was introduced by Edo Ronchi, President of CEN, and Roberto Morabito, Director of the Department for Sustainability, ENEA, and President of the Italian Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform (ICESP).

For a slide presentation of the report, click on the speakers Ronchi and Morabito.

Categorisation system for the circular economy - a contribution to the future EU Taxonomy

Type:

Author: 
Schempp, Christian, Hirsch, Peter
Publication Date: 
03/2020
Country: 
Belgium

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Scope:

Contact: 
Janneke van Veen

The lack of a commonly accepted and inclusive definition and circularity measurement methodology hampers the transition to a more circular economy. It obstructs the development and access to finance, credit risk assessment, and transferability and replicability of projects and investments across regions and jurisdictions.

The Expert Group of Support to Circular Economy Financing proposes a sector-agnostic circular economy categorisation system that defines categories of activities substantially contributing to a circular economy. This categorisation system is intended as a contribution to the future work of the Sustainable Finance Platform on the EU taxonomy of activities contributing to the circular economy objective.

Recycled post-consumer textiles - an industry perspective

Recycled post-consumer textiles - an industry perspective

Recycled post-consumer textiles

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Author: 
Circle Economy
Publication Date: 
02/2020
Country: 
EU

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Scope:

Contact: 
Hilde van Duijn

Europe is facing a growing mountain of used textiles. In North-West Europe 4700 kilotonnes of post-consumer textile waste are generated annually. Still, less than 1% of textiles produced are currently recycled into new ones, and around 50% are downcycled, incinerated or landfilled.

Automated sorting technologies could enable the industry to turn non-rewearable textiles into valuable feedstock for high-value recycling. Fibersort, a Near Infrared based technology, is able to categorise textiles according to their fibre composition, structure and colour.

At the end of each chapter of the report, recommendations are formulated for recyclers, manufacturers and brands to address the socio-cultural, physical and economic barriers for uptake of sorted textiles.

Sustainable construction guidelines for public authorities – A circular economy perspective

ACR+ report - Sustainable construction guidelines for public authorities – A circular economy perspective

Type:

Author: 
ACR+ Association of Cities and Regions for sustainable Resource management
Publication Date: 
12/2019
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Contact: 
Paolo Marengo
Philippe Micheaux Naudet

Sustainable construction guidelines for public authorities – A circular economy perspective aims to help public authorities navigate through the topic of sustainable construction, understand what it means and determine how to encourage it.

The guidelines are especially targeted at local and regional authorities, as they play a crucial role in the whole construction life cycle not only by stimulating innovation and cooperation between all actors but also because they work at a level close to citizens.

Unlike most of the literature on the topic, these guidelines focus on circularity and material resource efficiency, rather than covering only energy efficiency extensively. Moreover, the report goes beyond waste to integrate the whole value chain of the construction sector.

Report by ACR+: Analysis of 135 paper and packaging waste collection systems

ACR+ report - Analysis of 135 paper and packaging waste collection systems

Type:

Author: 
ACR+ Association of Cities and Regions for sustainable Resource management
Publication Date: 
10/2019
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Sector:

Contact: 
Jean-Benoit Bel
Philippe Micheaux Naudet

The report provides an overview of different organisations and an analysis of the local performances of 135 waste collection systems across Europe. It highlights the diversity of collection systems, with many different sorting systems and combination of collection modes (door-to-door, bring bank, combined, etc.).

This report is a publication of the ACR+ Waste Observatory whose objective is to allow consistent comparisons among local and regional authorities, in order to provide benchmarks on municipal waste management and identify effective waste strategies for quality recycling. The analysed data has been collected in the framework of the H2020 COLLECTORS project, aimed at identifying good practices to improve the quantity of sorted municipal waste leading to high quality recycling.

Chambers for a Circular Economy - Actions to Support SMEs' Transition to a Circular Economy

Type:

Author: 
Valerio Burlizzi, Clemens Rosenmayr
Publication Date: 
02/2020
Country: 
Belgium

Language for original content:

Contact: 
Valerio Burlizzi
Clemens Rosenmayr

"Chambers for a Circular Economy - Actions to Support SMEs' Transition to a Circular Economy" aims to offer a clear overview of the wide range of initiatives led or co-managed by Chambers in the field of the Circular Economy, with the intention not only to inform and share innovative actions, but also to spur and motivate synergies, triggering collaborations and the creation of new business models. The aim of each and every of these projects is to enable businesses to evolve from a linear to a circular mode of production and consumption.

This publication presents a total of 32 projects initiated or co-led by Chambers in 13 countries, and categorized under 5 main topics:

  • certification,
  • circular skills,
  • cooperation,
  • reuse & recycle and
  • waste prevention.

Circular Procurement in 8 steps

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Author: 
Van Oppen, Bijl de Vroe, Croon
Publication Date: 
01/2020
Country: 
Netherlands

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Key Area:

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Contact: 
Cécile van Oppen
Godard Croon

Increasingly, circular procurement is seen as one of the ways to promote a circular economy.

This book provides a practical 8-step approach to integrate circular economy principles into a procurement process. Starting with the 'why' of circularity, following steps include internal collaboration, procurement procedures, developing criteria and contract management.

The book is the English translation of the successful Dutch edition 'Circulair inkopen in 8 stappen'.

Circular Revenue Models: Required Policy Changes for the Transition to a Circular Economy

Circular Revenue Models: required policy changes for the transition to a circular economy

Type:

Author: 
Copper8, Kennedy van der Laan & KPMG
Publication Date: 
10/2019
Country: 
Netherlands

Language for original content:

Contact: 
Cécile van Oppen
Marijn Polet
Jeroen van Muiswinkel

In the development of the circular economy, discussion around circular business models and circular revenue models is booming.

But what is a true circular business or circular revenue model? When can these models be applied, and what are the barriers that still exist?

For the past decade the authors of this paper have gathered practical experience with the implementation of circular revenue models such as lease, pay-per-use and take-back schemes. It is from this experience that they noticed that the current institutional economic framework hinders the transition to the circular economy.

The paper provides insight in four key barriers, providing a real-life business case as an example for each. It also includes a guideline for policy makers on how to address these barriers.

 

Aerospace Value Chain map in a Circular Economy Perspective

Aerospace Value Chain map in a Circular Economy Perspective

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Author: 
Aliona Lupu (Iniziativa Cubel)
Publication Date: 
02/2020
Country: 
Italy

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Key Area:

Scope:

Contact: 
Gennaro Russo
Julien Dubois
Aliona Lupu

This report assesses the Aviation sector value chain in the context of Circular Economy principles.

It offers an overview of the aircraft lifecycle, new supplier-consumer programmes already initiated by the industry and a proposal for the reconversion towards a more circular business model.

The assessment of the value chain was carried out according to the Circular Economy perspective (Redesign, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle).

This report advises the companies involvled in the EACP-EUROSME project, as an instrument to start the implementation process towards a Circular Economy business and as research for further financial support for project funding.

Samenwerken een circulaire fietsinfrastructuur. Een integrale en systematische aanpak.

Building a circular bicycle infrastructure together: an integral and systematic approach by Circulair Bouwen

Frontpage Samenwerken een circulaire fietsinfrastructuur.
Author: 
Maarten Barckhof
Publication Date: 
01/2020
Country: 
Netherlands

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Scope:

Contact: 
Maarten Barckhof, chairman of Stichting Circulair Bouwen

Samen werken aan circulaire fietsinfrastructuur. Een integrale en systematische aanpak by Stichting Circulair Bouwen is a report on a 2-year programme carried out with EU funds on building a circular bicycle road infrastructure. Over this period of time, valuable information has been gathered on how to promote and organize circular building efficiently.

To follow up on the programme, a multi-year project will be carried out in cooperation with governments, companies, educational institutions and NGOs, under the lead of the Radboud University Nijmegen, which will include two important policy fields:

  • encouraging cycling (low carbon, public health, better access to congested cities, car traffic reduction) and
  • the circular construction of bicycle lanes.

Green Generation - Together for the Earth

Green Generation - Together for the Earth

Green Generation

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Author: 
Polish Chamber of Digital Economy
Publication Date: 
01/2020
Country: 
Poland

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Key Area:

Scope:

The Polish Chamber of Digital Economy, an Ecommerce Europe member, has published a report on sustainability in e-commerce.

This report, titled Green Generation, shows that Polish consumers generally spot environmentally-unfriendly behaviours of retailers, but they do not quite want to take responsibility for making e-commerce less harmful to the environment; only one in five consumers is willing to wait longer for a shipment to be delivered through a grouped consignment.

As they already engage in some environmentally-friendly practices, such as collecting parcels from dedicated points, they do not seem willing to take up financial responsibility, such as paying extra charges for more ecological packaging or deliveries.

Construction and demolition waste: challenges and opportunities in a circular economy

European Environment Agency

Type:

Author: 
EEA
Publication Date: 
01/2020
Country: 
Denmark, EU

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Scope:

Contact: 
Ioannis Bakas

Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) makes up just over one third of total waste generation in the EU. Despite relatively high recovery rates of used materials, Europe’s construction sector will need to be even more ambitious in its waste management practices if it is to fully embrace Europe’s circular economy.

According to this European Environment Agency (EEA) briefing, circular approaches are key to increasing the quality and quantity of recycling and reuse of construction and demolition materials. The document examines how circular economy-inspired actions can help achieve waste policy objectives, namely waste prevention and increase both the quantity and the quality of recycling for C&DW while reducing hazardous materials in the waste.

EEA Report: Preventing plastic waste in Europe

Type:

Author: 
Henning Wilts (ETC/WMGE), Ioannis Bakas (EEA). , Dirk Nelen, Kévin Le Blevennec, Ulrike Meinel, Bettina Bahn‑Walkowiak, Mona Arnold (all ETC/WMGE). Lars Fogh Mortensen, Almut Reichel, Daniel Montalvo (EEA)
Publication Date: 
06/2019
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

Contact: 
Ioannis Bakas

This report from the European Environment Agency reviews waste prevention policies in Europe with a focus on how these policies approach the issue of plastics and plastic waste.

Waste prevention is at the centre of EU waste legislation as it delivers the most effective results in dealing with environmental issues around waste, placing it at the top of EU and national waste strategies and legislation.

Waste prevention can be implemented in any waste stream, but it needs to be customised to reflect each stream's particularities. This report focuses on plastic waste, as there is potential for substantial mitigation of the environmental issues raised by increased plastic consumption through the use of waste prevention instruments and mechanisms.

 

Circular Berlin: how to develop circular economy in the city

Circular Berlin

Berlin has the potential to become the first Circular City in Germany, due to its growing variety of initiatives, grass-roots and research work in the area of circular economy (CE).

This report provides information on the development of the project Circular Berlin, which started in 2018 and is financed by the EIT, under Horizon 2020.

The project consists of 4 phases:

  1. Pre-assessment (conducting awareness meeting with CE professionals, identifying CE initiatives, finding partners etc.) - already completed
  2. Feasibility Check
  3. Vision Development
  4. Implementation

Waste Management and the Circular Economy in Selected OECD Countries

OECD

Type:

Author: 
OECD
Publication Date: 
09/2019
Country: 
Other (global)

Language for original content:

This report provides a cross-country review of waste, materials management and circular economy policies in selected OECD countries, drawing on OECD’s Environmental Performance Reviews for 11 countries during the period 2010-17. It presents the main achievements in the countries reviewed, along with common trends and policy challenges, and provides insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of waste, materials management and circular economy policy frameworks.

As the selected reviews were published over a seven-year period, information for some countries may be more recent than for others. Nevertheless, the policy recommendations emerging from the reviews may provide useful lessons for other OECD countries and partner economies.

Building a circular economy - how a new approach to infrastructure can put an end to waste

Type:

Author: 
Libby Peake, Caterina Brandmayr
Publication Date: 
11/2019
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Scope:

Infrastructure has a major influence on whether resources can be preserved to use again or whether they are lost forever. For the most part, it has been designed for, and has perpetuated, the linear economy, the system of ‘take, make, use, throw’.

Working with academics from Resource Recovery from Waste at the University of Leeds, this report outlines three scenarios for England’s future with varying degrees of circularity. Green Alliance has analysed what infrastructure would be required under each of these scenarios for three common, high impact material streams from household waste: plastic, textiles and electrical equipment.

GROWING in CIRCLES

growing in circles cover page

Type:

Author: 
UN Environment
Publication Date: 
11/2019
Country: 
Other (United Nations)

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Scope:

In 2012, the United Nations Environment Programme launched the Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities (GI-REC) with the goal of applying integrated approaches and analyses such as urban metabolism in city planning and management (building on the work of the International Resource Panel).

After seven years, the first phase of the Initiative has brought together professionals from different disciplines, scientists, and policy makers. It has also brought together separate work streams of climate and resource efficiency, and how they are connected at the city level.

“Growing in Circles” summarises the GI-REC experience, and provides guidance on the transition of cities from a linear to a circular economy, and on alternatives to the way our cities are being planned and built.

Paving the way for a circular economy: insights on status and potentials

Paving the way for a circular economy: insights on status and potentials

Type:

Author: 
Mieke De Schoenmakere (EEA), Ybele Hoogeveen (EEA), Jeroen Gillabel (Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO), Saskia Manshoven (Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO), Evelien Dils (Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO)
Publication Date: 
11/2019
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

This report by the EEA highlights that fostering circular material use requires a broad system perspective and extensive stakeholder involvement. The entire product lifecycle — including the design, production, consumption and waste phases — needs to be addressed in a coherent way. The enablers of and barriers to circular business models need to be well understood and addressed before innovation and competitiveness can be enhanced.

EU Circular Economy and Trade Report

EU circular economy and trade

Type:

Author: 
Kettunen, M., Gionfra, S. and Monteville, M.
Publication Date: 
11/2019
Country: 
EU

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Scope:

Contact: 
Marianne Kettunen

This policy paper by the Institute for European Environmental Policy examines the interface between the EU circular economy, trade and sustainable development. It identifies the expected global impacts associated with the EU’s shift to circularity and investigates the role of trade in either incentivising or hindering this process.

Finally, the paper highlights the links between the circular economy, trade and sustainable development, emphasising the need for better policy coherence among these areas in the EU.

New Plastics Economy Global Commitment 2019 Progress Report

New Plastics Economy Global Commitment progress report launched

Type:

Author: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation , UN Environment Programme
Publication Date: 
10/2019
Country: 
Other (global)

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The Ellen MacArthur Foundation and the UN Environment Programme have published the first annual New Plastics Economy Global Commitment progress report. Presented at the Our Ocean Conference in Oslo, the report provides an unprecedented level of transparency on how almost 200 businesses and governments are reshaping the plastics system.

Highlights of the report include:

  • Companies set out actions to eliminate problematic plastic packaging, and increase the use of recycled plastic in packaging by more than five-fold by 2025, equivalent to keeping 25 million barrels of oil in the ground every year
  • Unilever, Mars, Incorporated, and PepsiCo announce significant reductions in virgin plastic use by 2025
  • Analysis carried out for the report shows that on average around 60% of business signatories’ plastic packaging is reusable, recyclable or compostable today. Through the Global Commitment, they have committed to making this 100% by 2025
  • Government signatories including France, Rwanda, the UK, and the cities of São Paulo (Brazil) and Austin (USA), are putting in place policy measures that include bans, public procurement, extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes, fiscal measures, and incentives for research and development
  • The Ellen MacArthur Foundation and the UN Environment Programme call for more businesses and governments to sign the commitment and continue to raise the ambition level.

This announcement is an important step in the Foundation’s mission to accelerate the transition towards a circular economy. Launched in 2018, the Global Commitment now includes over 400 signatories, which are aligned on a path to build a new plastics economy. Business signatories, including companies representing 20% of all plastic packaging produced globally, are working to eliminate the plastic we don't need, to innovate so that all plastic we do need is 100% reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and to circulate all the plastic we use.

To find out more visit www.newplasticseconomy.org

Identifying the impact of the circular economy on the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Industry: opportunities and challenges for businesses, workers and consumers – mobile phones as an example

Identifying the impact of the circular economy on the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Industry: opportunities and challenges for businesses, workers and consumers – mobile phones as an example

mobile pone case study of circular economy impact CEPS EESC

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Author: 
Centre for European Policy Studies
Publication Date: 
10/2019
Country: 
EU

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Scope:

Mobile phones, particularly smartphones, have undergone a period of rapid growth to become virtually indispensable to today's lifestyle. Yet their production, use and disposal can entail a significant environmental burden.

This study, commissioned by the European Economic and Social Committee and carried out by the Centre for European Policy Studies, looks at the opportunities and challenges arising from implementing circular economy approaches in the mobile phone value chain. A review of the value chain and different circular approaches is complemented by a scenario analysis that aims to quantify the potential impacts of circular approaches such as recycling, refurbishment and lifetime extension.

The study finds that there is a large untapped potential for recovering materials from both the annual flow of new mobile phones sold in Europe once they reach the end of their life and the accumulated stock of unused, so-called "hibernating" devices in EU households. Achieving high recycling rates for these devices can offer opportunities to reduce EU dependence on imported materials and make secondary raw materials available on the EU market, as shown in the picture below.

Drawing on the empirical findings and the analysis conducted, this study recommends policy action in the following areas:

  • Collection rates of old unused mobile phone devices are low, which means there is largely unexploited potential in the EU for recovering valuable materials from these devices.
  • Although consumers generally show willingness to engage in circular economy practices for mobile phones, in reality only a few do so.
  • Various challenges for reuse and refurbishment businesses stem from EU legislation, including regulatory complexity and "preparation for use" in the WEE directive

As such, policy-makers should close the collection gap for mobile phone devices, which could in turn create jobs in the refurbishment sector. Extending the lifetime of mobile phones can also provide CO2 mitigation benefits, particularly from displacing the production of new devices.

Policy enablers to accelerate the circular economy: Scaling up actions across regions and stakeholders

wbsd report infographic

Type:

Author: 
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Publication Date: 
09/2019
Country: 
EU
International

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Over the past couple of years, as companies start to understand the opportunities that lie under the concept of circular economy, the circularity conversation has gained significant momentum. At the same time, national and regional governments are developing frameworks and regulations to promote the circular economy.

Effective policymaking is crucial to accelerate and scale up circular actions in the economy. It supports businesses in overcoming hurdles by stimulating innovative projects and long-term investments in circularity, facilitating collaboration and partnerships, and producing tangible results.

Learning from successful policies can help inform future policies to promote wider actions in other sectors and regions over time.

By highlighting some representative pioneers in circular economy policy, exploring key enablers from these policies, describing how other regions could replicate these enablers and providing recommendations, this publication aims to provide insights from the policy perspective and to feed into the ongoing development of other initiatives and policies related to the circular economy globally.

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