In 2017, Poland was the third most carbon–intensive economy in Europe. The five main contributing sectors are power, industry, the built environment (mainly heating), agrifood and transport.
Poland is home to 33 out of 50 cities with the highest air quality concerns in the EU, according to the WHO. The two major sources of pollutants are motor vehicles and the burning of coal in domestic solid fuel furnaces.
Recent action by Poland's cities, governments, and local communities indicate that change is sought after. The acceptance of the circular economy roadmap at the national level in 2018 and city development strategies emphasize readiness for a transition towards a circular economy. This transition could help tackle some of the country's greatest social and environmental challenges.