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Knowledge

In this section you will find knowledge such as studies, reports, presentations and position papers….. all submitted by stakeholders.

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Circular Cities Week Report 2020: No city left behind the circular economy revolution

Circular Economy Club

The Circular Cities Week report presents the outcomes of the global event Circular Cities Week including circular challenges and opportunities for cities. It represents a crowdsourced tool for cities worldwide to implement the circular model.

The report explores the association between municipalities pursuing circular economy policy and investments in circular business that create jobs. It also takes a closer look at how businesses perceive this municipal support for circular economy.

The report summarises the findings of a study by the Circular Economy Club (CEC) and the CEC local chapters. The key learnings are as follows:

  1. Role of new technologies
  2. Creating new markets
  3. Need for clear incentives
  4. Policies can promote circulation
  5. Role of reverse logistics.

Making a business case for African battery recycling

African battery recycling
Author: 
Reinhardt Smit
Publication Date: 
09/2020
Country: 
Netherlands

Language for original content:

Closing the Loop (CTL) and Fairphone have partnered with other circular innovators, such as the Dutch government, in a project that is likely to become a game-changer for the electronics industry - proving that scrap batteries from Africa can be used to produce clean materials for the future.

In the first-ever shipment of scrap Li-ion batteries from West Africa to Europe, CTL has taken the first step towards proving that these scrap batteries can be a sustainable source for resources.

The results of this pilot have been recorded in a white paper, available here.

Unveiling a Recycling-Sourced Mineral-Biocellulose Fibre Composite for Use in Combustion-Generated NOx Mitigation Forming Plant Nutrient: Meeting Sustainability Development Goals in the Circular Economy

Unveiling a recycling-sourced composite to help meet Sustainable Development Goals in the circular economy

MDPI
Author: 
Patrick Gane, Katarina Dimić-Mišić, Nemanja Barać, Monireh Imani , Djordje Janaćković, Petar Uskoković, Ernest Barceló
Publication Date: 
06/2020
Country: 
Switzerland

Language for original content:

NOx (nitrogen oxides) are emitted during combustion in air at high temperatures and/or pressure; if they exceed recommended levels, this has a negative impact on the population. The authors found that when moist, limestone (CaCO3) readily sorbs NO2 to form calcium nitrate, which provides the basis for developing a surface flow filter. The substrate was made from “over-recycled” cellulose fibres such as newsprint, magazines and packaging fibres which are too weak for further recycling. The substrate was coated with fine-ground calcium carbonate and micro-nano-fibrillated cellulose, which was used as a binder and essential humectant to prevent a stagnant air layer forming. Pre-oxidation countered the action of denitrification bacteria colonising the cellulose substrate.

Wskaźniki monitorowaniagospodarki o obiegu zamkniętymgospodarki o obiegu zamkniętymgospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym

Indicators for monitoring circular economy in Poland

Author: 
Joanna Kulczycka (editor)
Publication Date: 
10/2020
Country: 
Poland

Language for original content:

Scope:

Contact: 
Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences

This is the second book published by the Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

It is a collection of contributions by different authors focusing on a proposal for indicators to monitor circular economy in Poland. A large part of the work consists in explaining that circular economy is more than just waste management.

The publication is in Polish, but abstracts of the different contributions are available in English at the end of the book (from page 203 onwards).

 

Resource efficiency and the circular economy in Europe 2019 – even more from less

Resource efficiency and the circular economy in Europe 2019 – even more from less

Type:

Author: 
Paweł Kaźmierczyk (EEA) and Theo Geerken (ETC/WMGE).
Publication Date: 
04/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

This European Environmental Agency Report presents an analysis of approaches and identifies trends, similarities and new directions taken by countries in resource efficiency and circular economy (CE). It is based exclusively on data provided by 32 Eionet members.

Its main objective is to stimulate exchange of information and good practice between countries and to support capacity building within Eionet.

Another objective is to contribute to various policy processes, including work carried out by European Commission, European Parliament and International Resource Panel.

The report addresses 6 elements:

  • material resource efficiency and CE in the EU
  • policy framework
  • monitoring and targets
  • examples of innovative approaches and good practice
  • other resources
  • way forward.

Europe’s consumption in a circular economy: the benefits of longer-lasting electronics

Europe’s consumption in a circular economy - the benefits of longer-lasting electronics

Author: 
EEA
Publication Date: 
06/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

The electrical and electronics industry has been contributing to Europe socially and economically for almost 100 years. However, its production, use and disposal are resource- intensive activities resulting in significant environmental and climate impacts.

This European Environmental Agency (EEA) briefing describes how increasing product lifetime and improving ‘circularity’ are essential steps towards reducing impacts from electronics.

Case studies of 4 different electronic product groups show there is potential for significant increases in their actual lifetime use. Extending the lifetime and delaying the obsolescence of electronics can significantly reduce impacts and contribute to meeting EU environment, climate and circularity objectives.

The case for increasing recycling: Estimating the potential for recycling in Europe

The case for increasing recycling - Estimating the potential for recycling in Europe

Author: 
EEA
Publication Date: 
06/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

EU legislation includes recycling targets for municipal, construction and demolition, and electronic waste. This European Environment Agency briefing shows that there is significant potential to increase recycling from all of these streams.

However, to fully exploit this potential, current barriers need to be overcome. This also requires strong implementation of targeted regulations to increase separate collection.

Implementing new policy measures, some of which are already included in the EU 2020 Circular Economy Action Plan, can both directly and indirectly exploit the potential for increased recycling.

Biodegradable and compostable plastics - challenges anf opportunities

Biodegradable and compostable plastics: what are the challenges and opportunities?

Author: 
EEA
Publication Date: 
08/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

More and more plastic products are being labelled as ‘compostable’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘oxo-degradable’ or ‘bio-based’. However, plastics made from bio-based materials are not necessarily compostable or biodegradable. Moreover, plastics that do biodegrade can be made from fossil fuel-based materials.

What is the difference between compostable and biodegradable? What happens to biodegradable and compostable plastics when they are littered? Can citizens compost such products in their own gardens? Can such plastics be recycled?

This European Environment Agency (EEA) briefing aims to answer these questions.

From Linear to Circular in the Textile and Apparel Industries

From Linear to Circular in the Textile and Apparel Industries

Brochure From Linear to Circular in the Textile and Apparel Industries

Type:

Author: 
Mieke Evers, Netherlands Enterprise Agency, Freek Van Eijk, Holland Circular Hotspot
Publication Date: 
09/2020
Country: 
Netherlands

Language for original content:

Key Area:

The brochure "From Linear to Circular in the Textile and Apparel Industries - Let’s make the circular shift together" aims to give a push towards a circular textile industry. Circular economy strategies and business models have the potential to offer solutions for the textile industry:

  • use renewable sources
  • phase out dangerous substances
  • increase utilisation and
  • radically improve reuse and recycling.

The brochure highlights Dutch circular frontrunners that make a change - just a fraction of the initiatives, organisations and technologies available. Only the most inspiring examples have been selected, with a potential to be upscaled and implemented in other parts of the world, hoping that they will also inspire and encourage others to collaborate and make a change.

Bio-waste in Europe - from challenges to opportunities

Bio-waste in Europe - turning challenges into opportunities

Type:

Author: 
Ann van der Linden (VITO, ETC/WMGE), Almut Reichel (EEA)
Publication Date: 
06/2020
Country: 
EU

Language for original content:

Scope:

Bio-waste – mainly food and garden waste – is a key waste stream with a high potential for contributing to a more circular economy.

This European Environmental Agency Report provides an overview of bio-waste generation, prevention, collection, and treatment in Europe.

Bio-waste accounts for more than 34 % of the municipal solid waste. Many countries in Europe are far from capturing bio-waste's full potential. Food waste accounts for nearly 60 % of all bio-waste from households and similar sources. Preventing it is felt as an ethical responsibility for society.

Composting (with oxygen) and anaerobic digestion (without) are currently the two most widely applied treatment techniques. The latter generates biogas - renewable energy - and tends to deliver higher environmental benefits.

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