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Consumer Attitudes towards Circular Business Models and Activities

Consumer Attitudes towards Circular Business Models and Activities

Consumer attitudes towards circular business models

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Author: 
CE Center | Circular Economy Policy Research Center
Publication Date: 
05/2019
Country: 
Belgium

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This study focuses on the willingness of consumers to use circular business models (CBMs).

It assesses the ‘suitability’ of a product or sector for a particular circular business model from a consumer-based perspective: is it likely that a sufficient number of consumers would be willing to adopt the CBM to make it worthwhile for providers to enter this market? The study aims to provide an overview of different attitudes towards a diverse set of CBMs. Specifically, it takes six scenarios concentrating on coffee, printing, housing, clothing, household chores and secondhand markets. This approach makes it possible to compare results for a variety of CBMs as well as to identify general trends in consumers’ intentions and reported behaviour.

Impact of Circular Economy on achieving the climate targets: case mobility

Impact of Circular Economy on achieving the climate targets: case mobility

Impact of Circular Economy on achieving the climate targets: case mobility

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Author: 
Maarten Christis (VITO), An Vercalsteren (VITO)
Publication Date: 
05/2019
Country: 
Belgium

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This study starts from the draft version of the Flemish Climate Policy plan. It assesses how specific measures and strategies reduce the impact on the climate. It also aims to illustrate the added value of the circular economy, which is intrinsically focused on reducing the material footprint.

The study looks at the climate impact from a consumption or footprint perspective, starting with Flemish consumption and including the value chain both inside and outside Flanders. Territorial GHG emissions are included separately to distinguish between the global and Flemish impact. The mobility sector has been selected as a case study. The study focuses on passenger transport by car.

CO2 mineralisation for sustainable construction materials

CO2 mineralisation for sustainable construction materials

CO2 mineralisation for sustainable construction materials
Author: 
Andrea Di Maria (KU Leuven), Ruben Snellings (VITO), Luc Alaerts (KU Leuven), Mieke Quaghebeur (VITO), Luc Alaerts (KU Leuven), Karel Van Acker (KU Leuven)
Publication Date: 
04/2019
Country: 
Belgium

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The production of Portland cement (PC) is responsible for 8-10 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. PC and PC-based blends are the most common binder in concrete production (< 99 % of cases). As PC is accountable for 74-81% of the CO2 footprint, substantial climate impact reductions for concrete requires eco-innovation at the cement level.

One of the most promising technologies to lower CO2 emissions consists in partially replacing traditional PC with industrial byproducts displaying cementitious properties, such as blast furnace slag from iron production, or coal combustion fly ashes from power generation, but their availability and properties are rather constrained.

A diversification of local (secondary) raw materials to extend partial substitution of PC is ongoing. 

Employment impact of the transition to a circular economy: literature study

Employment impact of the transition to a circular economy: literature study

Employment impact of the transition to a circular economy: literature study

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Author: 
Gwen Willeghems, Kris Bachus
Publication Date: 
09/2018
Country: 
Belgium

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Scope:

This research paper is the first output of the research line that studies employment and actor analysis for the circular economy. The study aimed to gain insight into how the transition to a more circular economy could affect the labour market, with an emphasis on net job creation or loss, job creation at different skill levels, and geographical job concentration. The methodology used was a combination of literature review and exploratory data analysis, the latter focusing mainly on the Belgian region of Flanders.

Exploration of the plastic recycling landscape in Flanders

Exploration of the plastic recycling landscape in Flanders

Exploration of the plastic recycling landscape in Flanders

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Author: 
Marijke Jacobs (VITO), Ive Vanderreydt (VITO), Loïc Deweerdt (Summa), Luc Alaerts (Summa)
Publication Date: 
06/2018
Country: 
Belgium

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In order to identify and analyse possible bottlenecks and opportunities in the current post-consumer plastic recycling landscape in Flanders, available data sources were summarised and relevant sector organisations and companies interviewed. Specifically, interviews were organised with companies working on polyolefins in order to gain greater insight into the potential for circularity of the value chain for this type of polymer and its applications.

Circular Cities - Impacts on Decarbonization and beyond

Circular Cities - Impacts on Decarbonization and beyond
Author: 
Enel Spa, ARUP, Enel Foundation
Publication Date: 
11/2021
Country: 
Italy

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To evaluate the impact of adopting circular economy principles in cities – in terms of emissions, quality of life and resilience – Enel and ARUP, with the scientific support of the Enel Foundation, have collaborated on a research project focusing on four cities: Bogotá, Genoa, Glasgow and Milan, all committed to enhancing the energy transition.

The study concerns three key urban sectors:

  1. mobility
  2. built environment
  3. energy systems.

It entailed interviews with stakeholders and analyses of existing decarbonisation policies and circular strategies. A reference model was used to help identify the most significant circular actions that could lead to a reduction in GHG emissions in three sectors.

The results could be used as a guide for decision makers.

The circular economy as a de-risking strategy and driver of superior risk-adjusted returns

The circular economy as a de-risking strategy and driver of superior risk-adjusted returns

The circular economy as a de-risking strategy and driver of superior risk-adjusted returns
Author: 
Bocconi University, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Intesa Sanpaolo
Publication Date: 
08/2021
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Bocconi University’s analysis of 200+ European, publicly listed companies across 14 industries shows that the higher the circularity of a company, the lower its risk of defaulting on debt, and the higher the risk-adjusted returns on its stock.

The paper reveals how circular economy strategies can reduce investment risk by decoupling economic growth from resource consumption, diversifying business models, and allowing businesses to better anticipate stricter regulation and changing customer preferences. Embedding circular economy principles also reduces exposure to supply chain disruptions and volatility of resource prices.

The big food redesign

The big food redesign

While the current food system has sustained a growing population and brought economic development, much of it is essentially ‘linear’ and extractive, particularly in more developed markets. It is wasteful, polluting, and depletive, and is the primary driver of biodiversity loss and accounts for a third of global greenhouse gas emissions.

The big food redesign study by Ellen MacArthur Foundation looks at the role fast-moving consumer goods companies (FMCGs) and food retailers can play to move us towards a food system with significant positive impacts for business, people, and the environment. It explores the ways in which food products can be designed in closer collaboration with farmers, for nature. It also investigates the crucial enabling role of policies and incentives.

The Nature Imperative: How the circular economy tackles biodiversity loss

The Nature Imperative: How the circular economy tackles biodiversity loss

The Nature Imperative: How the circular economy tackles biodiversity loss
Author: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Publication Date: 
09/2021
Country: 
United Kingdom
United Kingdom

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Regenerating nature requires an economic transformation. To halt and reverse biodiversity loss, we need to fundamentally transform the way we produce, use, and consume our products and food. Conservation and restoration efforts alone – crucial though they are – will not be enough. The circular economy offers a framework for such a transformation. Applied together, its three principles are able to help tackle the root causes of biodiversity loss and enable the regeneration of nature. These biodiversity benefits can be demonstrated across different industry sectors, as shown in this new study by Ellen MacArthur Foundation. This paper also highlights the key steps businesses and policymakers can take to scale the circular economy potential and help shape a nature-positive future.

Circular economy, ecosystems an biodiversity - Towards a joint approach

Circular economy, ecosystems and biodiversity - Towards a joint approach

Circular economy, ecosystems an biodiversity - Towards a joint approach

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Author: 
Amélie Vaz, Head of studies and prospective, INEC
Publication Date: 
09/2021
Country: 
France

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Given the need to take biodiversity more into account in circular economy projects, this study aims to stress the links between the two and to clarify the role played by the circular economy in preserving ecosystems.

Several guiding circular economy principles contribute to reducing the impacts of our activities on ecosystems, such as non-toxicity, optimisation of resource management, promotion of renewable resources and looping of flows. The study also highlights the fact that each lever for implementing the circular economy can and should factor in biodiversity: land-use planning, normative framework, innovation, awareness raising and training, and economic support.

Study on circular economy principles for buildings’ design

Study on circular economy principles for buildings' design: Final Report

EC
Author: 
Deloitte, Building Research Establishment, In Extenso Innovation Croissance, Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (European Commission)
Publication Date: 
07/2021
Country: 
EU

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This study aims to assist the European Commission to identify policy options that support the uptake of circular economy principles for buildings’ design in European, national and local policies.

The goal is:

  • to increase the service life of buildings
  • to facilitate the use of secondary materials and
  • to improve resource efficiency across the building life cycle.

The study also provides key insights and recommendations on actions for a roadmap supporting the uptake and implementation of circular economy principles for buildings’ design.

TOP 10 Circular Materials by mass - Market study

Top 10 Circular Materials by mass - Market study

Top 10 Circular Materials by mass

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Author: 
Eveline Lemke, Charlene Nessel
Publication Date: 
06/2021
Country: 
Germany

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Every year, about 100 billion tons of material are taken from the planet - but only 10 billion are circularized. The results of the TOP 10 study clearly highlight the differences between the systems: the waste culture and concepts are different in the Global North and the Global South, as are the objectives of the respective legislations.

In the Global North, the goal is to decouple waste generation from consumption. In the Global South, waste increases with per capita income; here, the old consumption patterns and images of the rich Global North are often emulated. 

Scorecards are used in the study to assess individual materials and their circular maturity in the region. The overall score is shown in the summary per material.

Promotion of the circular economy in the Hotel Industry in Cyprus and Greece – Preliminary assessment of the current status of circular economy

Promotion of Circular Economy in the hotel industry in Cyprus and Greece

Hotels4Climate
Author: 
Cyprus Federation of Employers & Industrialists (OEB), Institute of Greek Tourism Confederation (INSETE), Public Policy Consultancy adelphi
Publication Date: 
12/2020
Country: 
Cyprus

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Antri Constantinou Contact details

This report is published by the Cyprus Federation of Employers & Industrialists (OEB), the Institute of Greek Tourism Confederation (INSETE) and the public policy consultancy adelphi (Germany) as part of the European project Hotels4Climate financed by EUKI.

The report aims to assess the current state of circularity in the hotel industry in Cyprus and Greece by conducting national surveys in both countries targeting hotels in order to:

  • identify the priority sectors within the main services offered by hotels, the business challenges and opportunities to move to circular economy,
  • create successful, flexible and resilient circular business models, and
  • identify a number of internal and external barriers that raise obstacles to the transition to circular economy.

Les Partenariats, socle de l'économie circulaire

Partnerships are a cornerstone of successful circular economy initiatives, shows EpE report

Partenariats image
Author: 
Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE)
Publication Date: 
06/2021
Country: 
EU, France

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Sector:

The circular economy is an alternative to the dominant economic model, which causes considerable damage to the environment as it is based on the linear use of resources.

The development of the circular economy has been hindered by a number of economic, technological and regulatory constraints.

EpE's natural resources commission has spent three years identifying what makes circular economy initiatives successful. An analysis of 27 circular economy initiatives carried out by companies shows that partnerships are one key to overcoming these constraints. A closer examination of these partnerships sheds light on various forms of governance.

Rewarding recycling: Learnings from the world’s highest-performing deposit return systems

Rewarding recycling

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Author: 
TOMRA
Publication Date: 
02/2021
Country: 
Germany, Other (Norway)

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An increasing number of countries consider implementing a deposit return system for single-use beverage containers to address today’s challenges, i.e.:

  1. meeting new waste recovery targets,
  2. ending littering and
  3. moving towards a circular economy.

TOMRA shares lessons learnt from its 45+ years’ experience of innovating and managing deposit return systems globally in a new white paper including:

  • outcomes of effective deposit return systems
  • 4 key principles and 12 elements of high-performing deposit return systems
  • dozens of case studies on real-world implementation of deposit return policy.

The white paper seeks to contribute to an educated discussion on recycling best practice – including what can be learnt from the past and what the future may look like.

Sălacea Romania: Going from 0 to 40% waste recycling rate within 3 months

Case study Salacea

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Author: 
Zero Waste Europe
Publication Date: 
09/2019
Country: 
Romania

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Romania’s recycling rate of 13% is one of the lowest in the EU with most waste going to landfill. The publication explains how the city of Sălacea, in the north-west of Romania, not only managed to quickly rise from almost no waste recycling to 40% in 3 months, but also how the community reduced its overall waste by 55%.

The case study also explains how political will, commitment from local waste operators and involvement of the community were key to the success of the strategy. The municipality introduced door-to-door household separate collection for 5 types of waste (paper and cardboard, plastic and metal, glass, bio-waste, residual waste) and implemented a four-week education programme with citizens before changing the collection infrastructure.

Study on Circular Economy developments in the GCC region and opportunities for collaboration with the European Union

Study on Circular Economy developments in the GCC region and opportunities for collaboration with the European Union

EEAS logo

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Author: 
CEPS: Noriko Fujiwara, Vasileios Rizos, Jorge Núñez Ferrer
Publication Date: 
04/2021
Country: 
EU

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This study explores developments in the field of the circular economy in the Arab States of the Gulf region to identify areas where the EU and the GCC countries can strengthen their collaboration. Focusing on two GCC countries with recent policy developments in this area: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, the study first examines the current framework conditions that would shape prospects for a circular economy and then explores emerging business opportunities.

The research concludes that there are three main areas where the EU and GCC countries could further collaborate on the circular economy:

  1. infrastructure development
  2. regulatory enforcement, and
  3. funding mechanisms.

The report was first published on the European External Action Service’s website.

Global Circular Material: The BIG 5 – and their story behind

Global Circular Material: The BIG 5 - and their story behind

Global circular material

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Author: 
Eveline Lemke, Charlene Nessel
Publication Date: 
06/2021
Country: 
Germany

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The circular economy offers new answers to the question of how 9 billion people can survive on this planet, accepting that there are planetary boundaries and climate change is ongoing.

The aim of this study is to identify drivers of the big five globally largest material flows by mass - ferrous metals, aluminium, paper, glass, asphalt - from a circular perspective and to understand the story behind them.

The focus is on what the development of the BIG 5 tells us about intentions, because this will also reveal the unintended. 

This study might inspire industrial managers to take the right decision and pave the pathways to a circular society that is just, balances out social and ecological needs and will provide a solid ground for survival of mankind on planet earth.
 

Circular construction and renovation - Actions and recommendations to the Federal government for accelerating the circular economy in construction

Circular construction and renovation

Photo Romnée A.
Author: 
Federal Council for Sustainable Development (FRDO-CFDD)
Publication Date: 
11/2020
Country: 
EU

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The final study report on Circular construction and renovation - Actions and recommendations to the Federal government for accelerating the circular economy in construction proposes actions to be taken by Belgium's federal government (and thus the regional levels as well), with a view to accelerating renovation and circular construction with respect to building materials.

More specifically, the study aims to identify relevant instruments, obstacles and measures which are either needed or already underway, and to issue general recommendations for the federal authorities. The study does not address ways to put these measures into effect or possible changes in the instruments.

A circular economy for plastics: Let's turn challenges into opportunities

A circular economy for plastics: Let's turn challenges into opportunities

NL branding

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Author: 
Anna Schwarz, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Rob de Ruiter, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Esther Zondervan, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Freek van Eijk, Holland Circular Hotspot, Lia Huybrechts, Holland Circular Hotspot
Publication Date: 
04/2021
Country: 
Netherlands

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Energy efficient bubbles, solar-powered interceptors, new business and design models, smart collection solutions, high-tech and fully automated sorting practices and chemical recycling technologies: the Dutch initiative provides inspiration and innovation insights linked to a circular economy for global application. Only by international collaboration will we achieve sizeable success as the plastics value chain spans the globe.

With this brochure, Holland Circular Hotspot and TNO bring their insights to the international level and share best practices with the hope that it will inspire everyone around the world to take action and kickstart circular development.

Growth-positive zero-emission pathways to 2050

Sitra studies 185

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Author: 
Paul Drummond, Daniel Scamman, Paul Ekins (UCL), Leonidas Paroussos (E3-Modelling), Ilkka Keppo (UCL and Aalto University)
Publication Date: 
04/2021
Country: 
Finland

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Sitra commissioned this study to investigate whether and under what assumptions and policy measures the decoupling of CO2 emissions from economic growth could occur at a sufficient rate for CO2 emissions to decline to net zero by 2050. The analyses were carried out on a global level.

The results of this study show that deep CO2 emission cuts in line with the 1.5 °C target and positive GDP growth can occur at the same time.

A natural next step would be to analyse in detail the decoupling of other harmful environmental impacts from economic growth. For example, a global shift to more circular business models could reduce CO2 emissions and help cut the use of materials and natural resources while maintaining economic growth.

The winning recipe for a circular economy

Sitra publication

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Author: 
Maria Hughes, Reetta Kohonen, Antti Lehtinen, Anu Mänty and Mika Sulkinoja (Sitra), Lauri Byckling, Nina Ahola, Ella Tolonen, Nicolas Dolce, Miikka Simanainen (Deloitte Finland), Olivier Jan, Pierrick Drapeau, Andreas Mitsios, Khai Linh Lhomme, Laura Plamondon (Deloitte France), Akira Kato, Arisa Fukuoka (Deloitte Japan), Joe Solly, Jillian Rodak, Tamara Luisce (Deloitte Canada)
Publication Date: 
04/2021
Country: 
Finland

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The study The winning recipe for a circular economy by Sitra set out to find diverse circular economy solutions that are viable and scalable, that drive systemic circularity, and that have exceptionally positive environmental and social impacts. Over 200 organisations around the world submitted their solutions for consideration.

The study presents 39 outstanding examples of circular economy solutions that are closing material loops and driving the circular transition while being very relevant to their own environment. These solutions demonstrate the benefits of circular business operations and how different organisations across society can use circular thinking to improve the value of their business and progress towards achieving the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals.

Analysis of the European Crude Tall Oil Industry

HARRPA logo

Type:

Author: 
Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT
Publication Date: 
01/2018
Country: 
EU

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Crude Tall Oil (CTO) is obtained from the wood pulping industry. Tall (from the Swedish word for pine) oil soap is collected from paper mills and then acidulated to make crude tall oil which is a mixture of fatty acids, rosin acids and other neutral materials.

CTO is a renewable material with great potential, high added value and extremely low carbon emissions. CTO can be further refined by fractionation, which separates it into tall oil fatty acids, tall oil rosins, distilled tall oil, pitch and heads.

CTO derivatives can be used in several sectors, such as animal feed and asphalt recycling, as well as for paints, lubricants, glues and road marking agents. CTO is not yet a widespread practice and could be further explored in the EU.

Ecolabel potentials of Sharing Economy Services in the Nordics

A Nordic study on the potential of ecolabels for the sharing economy

Nordic co-operation logo

Type:

Author: 
Mathias Vang Vestergaard, Jesper Minor and Dilek Turan, Minor Change Group
Publication Date: 
02/2020
Country: 
Other (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland)

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The Nordic working group on Circular Economy and Nordic Swan Ecolabel have investigated the potential for developing ecolabels for the growing sharing economy. Their findings are set out in a Study into the Potential Framework for Ecolabelling of Sharing Based Services in a Circular Economy Perspective.

The study examines sharing economy sectors and gives some recommendations:

  • a screening model has been developed which indicates which market/business models ecolabels should focus on in future;
  • ecolabels should adopt a medium broad definition of the sharing economy, divided into its three main groups: gig, peer-to-peer and access economy;
  • ecolabels should focus on the transport sector and the entertainment business.

Prevention of plastic waste in production and consumption by multi-actor partnerships

Prevention of plastic waste in production and consumption by multi-actor partnerships

PREVENT Waste Alliance

Type:

Author: 
Henning Wilts, Jennifer Schinkel, Lina Feder
Publication Date: 
03/2020
Country: 
Germany

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PREVENT Waste Alliance Contact details

The study sheds light on the background of the prevention of plastic waste from packaging and disposable products by explaining the need for action, the environmental impacts and risks to human health.

Experiences of the members of the PREVENT Waste Alliance and their partners in the prevention of plastic waste by multi-actor partnerships are presented by means of 17 best practice examples.

Finally, the study gives recommendations for the reduction of plastic waste and the further work of the PREVENT Waste Alliance. These include success factors for waste prevention, necessary next steps and conclusions regarding the necessary political framework conditions.

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