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In this section you will find existing studies and reports published in relation to the circular economy.

Studies, academic papers, business reports… are submitted by stakeholders, industry or authors. To propose your own publication, fill in our online specific form.

Displaying 1 - 10 of 76

Livre blanc - Systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires circulaires

Livre blanc 'Systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires circulaires' INEC

 Livre Blanc Systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires circulaires
Author: 
Institut National de l'Economie circulaire (INEC), Groupe de Travail "Systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires"
Publication Date: 
11/2018
Country: 
France

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L'Institut national de l'Economie circulaire (France) a lancé en 2017 un Groupe de travail sur les systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires, dont ce Livre Blanc présente les conclusions. Il explore les solutions que les orinicpes d'économie circulaire peuvent apporter pour des systèmes agricoles et agro-alimentaires durables.

Trois thématiques prioritaires ont été sélectionnées (par le Livre blanc):

  • Systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires circulaires: définitions, état des lieux et bonnes pratiques, sensibilisation des parties prenantes (consommateurs, professionnels, décideurs, distributeurs);
  • L'écologie territoriale appliquée aux systèmes agricoles et agroalimentaires: les synergies entre les entreprises, le niveau d’application (exploitation agricole, région, etc.), les circuits courts, l’agriculture urbaine et périurbaine;
  • Le retour au sol de la matière organique: identification des freins et leviers (acceptation sociétale, réglementation, etc.), compostage, méthanations et autres processus de transformation;
  • Valorisation des services rendus (qualité des sols, puit de carbone, approvisionnement durable…).

Destination: a circular tourism economy

Destination: a circular tourism economy

Destination: a circular tourism economy handbook cover

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Author: 
Centre for Regional & Tourism Research (CRT)
Publication Date: 
08/2018
Country: 
Denmark

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Destination: a circular tourism economy aims to increase the innovativeness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the tourism sector by supporting the integration of circular economy elements into their services, products and business models. This handbook is the result of work carried out in the Interreg South Baltic innovation project, CIRTOINNO.

In addition to providing an overall understanding of the concept of circular economy and the specificities of tourism and the South Baltic partner regions, the CIRTOINNO handbook investigates and discusses the opportunities and barriers for tourism SMEs to adopt circular economy principles, and identifies best practices. Focusing on Hotels, Restaurants and Spas, the handbook provides overall recommendations to:

  • implement monitoring systems and strategies to reduce energy and water use
  • build relationships with suppliers to rethink material flows
  • train staff to improve resource use and reduce spillage

The contribution of the Digital Industry to repair, remanufacturing and refurbishment in a Circular Economy

The contribution of the Digital Industry to repair, remanufacturing and refurbishment in a Circular Economy

DigitalEurope
Author: 
Digital Europe
Publication Date: 
11/2018
Country: 
EU

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In "The contribution of the Digital Industry to repair, remanufacturing and refurbishment in a Circular Economy”, DIGITALEUROPE describes longstanding business practices in the ICT sector which represent, next to waste collection and treatment facilities, the circular economy backbone of the ICT industry in Europe.

With roughly 28,000 tons of IT equipment and spare parts being shipped cross-border annually in Europe, the ICT sector is adopting circular business practices such as designing for longevity, durability and reliability, stimulating reuse, and facilitating refurbishment. There is significant market opportunity for circular economy in the ICT sector: in 2015, the business of refurbishing IT equipment already accounted for €3.1 billion in annual turnover across 2,500+ European firms.

Alongside a series of case studies on best practice such as Nokia's Global Asset Recovery & Remarketing Services, DIGITALEUROPE outlines the following position on legislating circular economy for ICT:

  • reuse, repair and refurbishment should not be addressed under waste legislation
  • recognise authorised repair networks and protect IP rights
  • consult stakeholders when legislating ecodesign to ensure feasibility
  • ensure requirements for spare parts continue to exist
  • keep the two-year guarantee and revise consumer protection without increasing refunds / replacements
  • remove administrative burden for and regulatory barriers to shipping products for repair, reuse and refurbishment

Samen circulair ontwerpen: circulaire architectuur en bouw

Samen circulair ontwerpen: circulaire architectuur en bouw

bna report logo

Type:

Author: 
One Future Play
Publication Date: 
09/2018
Country: 
Netherlands

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When 68 Dutch architectural firms signed a manifesto for circular construction in 2018, it became apparent that this field is committed and eager to apply circular economy principles in designing and building for sustainable development. Nonetheless there are few available resources on commencing such a process, which is why the BNA (Dutch Association of Architects) commissioned a study on 'Designing Circularity Jointly: Circular Architecture and Construction' in 2018.

The transition to a circular economy is a quest where nobody has the correct and precise information on what inputs are required to reduce carbon emissions, ensure raw materials are processed in a circular loop and the built environment is repurposed at end of life. Designing truly circular buildings requires frameworks and insights. These are summarised in the report's eight key messages:

  • circular economy is a shared quest full of complexity, obstacles and uncertainty, which is why openness, trust and courage are crucial;
  • architects need more circular assignments to be able to benchmark and share experiences with each other;
  • architects should play a greater role in designing buildings that can actually be built, maintained and recycled;
  • collaboration across the entire value chain is necessary to map out resource flows and design in a truly circular fashion;
  • regulation stimulates either renovation or newbuilds, becoming an obstacle when architects attempt to fuse old structures with new materials, linear raw materials with circular processes, and outdated standards with pioneering ones;
  • despite a lot of information being available, architects find it difficult to access sustainable materials that have passed the necessary quality checks;
  • the lack of clear guidelines about what is circular in the construction sector limits the adoption of corresponding principles;
  • there are no easily accessible and understandable tools to guide practitioners in designing a circular structure.

Documento de Posición: La Estrategia Europea sobre los Plásticos y la Propuesta de Directiva relativa a la reducción del impacto ambiental de determinados productos de plástico

Fundación para la Economía Circular (FEC) Position Paper on EU Plastics Initiatives

Author: 
Fundación para la Economía Circular (FEC)
Publication Date: 
11/2018
Country: 
Spain

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Contact: 
Anabel Rodríguez
Jean-Pierre Hannequart

In this position paper, the Spanish Fondacion para la Economia Circular (Foundation for the Circular Economy), summarises the policy initiatives on plastics published by the European Commission in 2018, which includes both the Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy and the Proposal for a Directive on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment.

Outlining its position, FEC argues that:

  • the plastics strategy is based on ambiguous definitions
  • rigorous implementation of existing legal obligations in relation to plastics is a priority
  • concrete measures reducing single-use plastics require greater precision
  • a coherent policy framework for reducing microplastic is also necessary
  • uptake & depth of quality standards and technological verification should be improved
  • demand-side measures must be developed to stimulate th euptake of recycled plastics
  • a New Plastics Economy requires global action & cooperation

Les indicateurs de l'économie circulaire pour les entreprises

Les indicateurs de l'économie circulaire pour les entreprises

Les indicateurs de l'économie circulaire pour les entreprises

Type:

Study
Author: 
Emmanuelle Moesch et Carlota Vicente (INEC), David Laurent (EpE)
Publication Date: 
11/2018
Country: 
France
France

Language for original content:

French

Sector:

All sectors

Scope:

EU

Selon le Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement, la consommation globale de ressources pourrait plus que doubler entre 2015 et 2050, mettant sous très forte pression les capacités planétaires. L’économie circulaire serait susceptible d’être une des réponses à l’épuisement des ressources et aux pressions sur l’environnement – pollution, destruction de la biodiversité.

Les entreprises sont de plus en plus nombreuses à explorer de nouveaux modèles d’affaires intégrant les principes de l’économie circulaire. Or, pour piloter leurs démarches et leurs stratégies, elles ont un besoin croissant d’indicateurs pour mesurer leur degré de circularité et ses effets sur l’environnement.

Pour les orienter, les membres d’Entreprises pour l’Environnement (EpE) et de l’Institut National de l’Economie Circulaire (INEC) ont réalisé cette publication commune.

Circular Economy Finance Guidelines

CE Finance

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Author: 
ABN AMRO, ING, RABOBANK
Publication Date: 
07/2018
Country: 
Netherlands

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ABN AMRO, ING and Rabobank, all members of the FinanCE working group alongside FGGM and the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, have published the first publicly available finance guidelines for the circular economy in July 2018 as input to the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development.

These guidelines aim to promote and develop the role finance can play in the transition, beginning with a definition of the circular economy and circular economy finance. These banks perceive the latter as being "any type of instrument where the investments will be exclusively applied to finance or re-finance, in part or in full, new and/or existing eligible companies or projects in the circular economy". The guidelines themselves have four core components:

  1. Use of investments
  2. Process for Project Evaluation and Selection
  3. Management of Investments
  4. Reporting

By making these guidelines publicly available, these three Dutch banks are encouraging other financial institutions to follow suit and stimulating the development of a common understanding of the circular economy in the European financial sector.

100 Italian Circular Economy Stories

100 Italian Circular Economy Stories

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Author: 
Enel, Symbola
Publication Date: 
03/2018
Country: 
Italy

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Contact: 
CircularEconomy@ENEL

100 Italian circular economy stories compiles successful innovations from companies, research institutes and non-profits across 11 sectors throughout Italy. Their stories show the transition towards a circular economy is gaining traction on the ground as a sustainable alternative to the incumbent methods of production.

A circular economy will not happen through policy alone: it requires companies, start-ups, foundations, research centres, universities, consortia and associations to apply the principles of a circular economy to practice. This book features 100 such examples from Italy, including Aquafil's regenerated nylon yarn and Favini's non-virgin papers. The whole collection of stories ranges from across the following 11 sectors:

  • Clothing and accessories
  • Agri-food
  • Furniture / Construction
  • Industrial automation and other Manufacturing
  • Chemistry and Pharmaceutics
  • Research & Development
  • Electrics and Electronics
  • New Materials and Resources
  • Enablers and Platforms
  • Promotion and Dissemination

​​These 100 stories clearly demonstrate that change is underway by showing how Italian products are brought to market using increasingly integrated technologies and supply chains which exchange materials and energy. The diffusion of such circular processes will enable more and more companies to free themselves from using costly virgin resources, gradually rendering the whole economy more sustainable.

For reference with the Italian circular economy strategy, please check the 2017 white paper "Towards a model of circular economy in Italy"

The EIB Circular Economy Guide

EIB Guide to Circular Economy

The EIB Circular Economy Guide
Author: 
European Investment Bank
Publication Date: 
10/2018
Country: 
Luxembourg

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The EIB Circular Economy Guide guide explains why and how the circular transition can be achieved.
Contact: 
CircularEconomy@EIB

The EIB has already supported the transition to a circular economy with over €2.1 bn in project financing, including the first of a kind Aanekoski bio-pulp mill in Finland, the largest circular investment to date in Europe. An overview of such projects, alongside the bank's perception of the drivers to a circular economy (resource opportunities, technological development and the emerging socio-economic paradigm of sustainable development), corresponding opportunities and potential business models (circular design, value recovery, optimal use & circular support) is provided in this guide. 

As the circular economy can actively contirbute to reducing carbon emissions and reaching wider environmental protection goals, the EIB is keen to finance projects contributing to this transition through a range of financing products, including EFSI and InnovFin for higher risk innovations. When doing so, it makes use of specific criteria to assess whether project are truly circular and attempts to categorise them within one of the aforementioned business models. During project assessment, further eligibility criteria are applied depending on the type of business model. These criteria, and more information about the bank's perception of circular economy strategies and project types, is provided in the guide's annexes.

Behavioural Study on Consumers’ Engagement in the Circular Economy

Behavioural Study on Consumers’ Engagement in the Circular Economy

Infographic explaining aims of behavourial study

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Author: 
LE Europe, VVA, Ipsos, ConPolicy, Trinomics
Publication Date: 
10/2018
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
Jeroen van laer

To obtain empirical policy-relevant insights to assist with the implementation of the EU Circular Economy Action Plan, the European Commission requested a behavourial study that aimed to:

  1. identify barriers and trade-offs faced by consumers when deciding whether to engage in the CE, in  particular whether to purchase a more or a less durable good, whether to have a good repaired, or to discard it and buy a replacement;
  2. establish the relative importance of economic, social and psychological factors that govern the extent to  which  consumers engage in the CE, especially purchasing durable products and seeking to repair products instead of disposing of them; and
  3. propose policy tools to enable and encourage consumers to engage in CE practices related to durability and reparability.

The study focused on five products: vacuum cleaners, televisions, dishwashers, smartphones and clothes. The methodology encompasses a systematic literature review, 50 stakeholder interviews, consumer focus groups, an online consumer survey with 12,064 participants, and a behavourial experiment with 6,042 participants. Whereas the survey collected information on consumers' perception of and experiences with circular practices, the financially incentivised experiments included a repairing and purchasing task.

Findings include a general willingness to engage but little practical action to date. Consumers appear to be hampered by insufficiently developed markets for repair, reuse and refurbish in addition to a lack of information regarding product durability and repairability. Such information appeared seminal in shifting purchasing decisions towards sustainable products in the behavourial experiment, highlighting great potential to bridge the gap between theoretical and practical engagement. This experiment also uncovered substantial consistency between a self-reported circular mindset and corresponding behaviour.

As product size and price increases, consumers also appear to have greater interest in repairability and durability. Whereas repairability is linked to spare parts, durability appears to follow from perceived product quality. Overall this study concludes that the price-quality ratio, followed by convenience, is the most important driver and simultaneously barrier for consumer engagement in the circular economy. Building on these finidngs, the study makes 5 recommendations for policy action to enhance consumer engagement in the circular economy:

  • boost CE engagement by increasing awareness of the circular economy;
  • make repairing products easier;
  • create financial incentives for repairability and durability;
  • make information on durability and repairability available at point of sale;
  • strengthen legislation requiring the provision of accurate information to consumers.

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