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Documentation et références

Dans cette section, vous trouverez les études et rapports liés à l’économie circulaire qui ont déjà été publiés.

Ces études, publications universitaires, rapports d’entreprises et autres sont transmis par les parties prenantes, les acteurs économiques ou les auteurs de ces documents. Pour proposer votre propre publication, veuillez compléter notre formulaire en ligne [EN]

161 - 170 sur 261 résultats

Circular Economy in Cities: a suite of easily accessible resources

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Resources collection
Author: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Publication Date: 
05/2019
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Explore how city governments around the world are taking action to enable circular economy opportunities that deliver on a range of mayoral priorities, Sustainable Development Goals, and climate objectives.

In March 2019, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation launched Circular Economy in Cities, a suite of easily accessible resources which provide a global reference on the topic.

Its modules have been developed to respond to the growing interest in circular economy from city governments and mayors, and will offer insights to many other urban stakeholders, including the people who live in cities.

Circular Economy in Cities focuses on opportunities in three key urban systems - buildings, mobility, and products - and looks at how city governments can work to enable a circular economy transition.

The project addresses questions such as:

  1. Vision: What will the implementation of circular economy principles in cities look like?
  2. Factsheets: What benefits can a circular economy transition in key urban systems bring to cities?
  3. Policy levers: What can urban policymakers do to accelerate this transition?
  4. Case studies: What examples are there of urban policymakers already putting this into action?
  5. Other networks & resources: What are other organisations doing on the topic of circular economy and cities?

The garden, outdoor power and power tools industries have already implemented main principles of the EU circular economy policy

Garden, outdoor power and power tools industries contributing to the EU circular economy policy

Author: 
EGMF & EPTA
Publication Date: 
05/2019
Country: 
Belgium

Language for original content:

Scope:

Contact: 
Contact

The garden, outdoor power and power tools industries have developed a joint position paper on the different principles of the circular economy the industries are already applying.

Given the proximity to nature and to the natural environment, these industries are committed towards protecting the environment and are already taking measures to minimise the life-cycle impact of products in the environment addressing the following issues:

  • Design of durable and reliable products
  • Application of material efficiency and hazardous substances substitution
  • Limiting noise and exhaust emissions
  • Reparability and extending product lifetime
  • Integrating recyclability and safe waste management aspects at the design stage
  • Limiting packaging and its impacts
  • New business models

More details on the specific measures can be found in the position paper.

Circular economy strategies and roadmaps in Europe: Identifying synergies and the potential for cooperation and alliance building – Study

Circular economy strategies and roadmaps in Europe: Identifying synergies and the potential for cooperation and alliance building

Circular economy strategies and roadmaps in Europe

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Author: 
Giacomo Salvatori, Frank Holstein, Kai Böhme
Publication Date: 
05/2019
Country: 
EU

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Scope:

Circular economy strategies have been under development in European cities, regions, and countries in the last few years. 33 strategies have been adopted since 2014, and at least 29 more are under development. Existing strategies were reviewed for this study, to identify similarities and differences, and to assess the involvement of civil society organisations, and potential for collaboration.

The study argues that documents developed in the future should put more focus on including broader sections of value chains, and on ensuring inclusive partnership approaches in all phases of the strategy’s cycle. To date, circular economy strategies show different degrees of inclusiveness in terms of value chains and partner involvement. Limited inclusive approaches can be explained by the exploratory nature of most strategy documents. This includes a stronger involvement of civil society organisations in earlier phases of strategy development, and not just for dissemination and citizen involvement.

The study highlights the role of the European Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform in gathering and sharing civil society’s knowledge and making sure it is fed into the policy cycle for circular economy.

Digital strategies for greater material efficiency in German industry

Digital strategies for greater material efficiency in German industry

Author: 
Dr. Adriana Neligan / Edgar Schmitz
Publication Date: 
05/2017
Country: 
Germany

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Key Area:

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Contact: 
Dr. Adriana Neligan

This study delivers the first empirical findings on the relevance of digitisation to improving material efficiency based on the German company survey ‘IW-Zukunftspanel’.

German manufacturing firms have up to now only rarely digitised material efficiency measures to a great extent. If they are - particularly in large companies - they tend to be used for process optimisation. Around two fifths of the companies are at least moderately digitised in relation to the most important industrial efficiency measures, namely process optimisation and the use of new techniques, but there is still more than a third that is not at all. Companies have most frequently digitised cross-company materials cycles, but this instrument is only applied by two fifths of industrial companies. There is still potential for more digitisation of measures relating to product design, materials cycle management and new business models.

At least every other manufacturing company reuses residue and waste materials via internal circulation systems. Nevertheless, for two fifths of these companies digital networks do not play any part and in the case of a further two fifths, the part they play is minor. Only one in ten companies is heavily digitised. More than half of industrial companies use resource-saving measures that begin at the product design stage. To date, almost half of these companies are not digitally networked, or if they are, it is only to a small extent. One third of the industrial companies up to now have considered new business models as an efficiency-raising way. Of these, three out of ten have not been digitised yet with a further two fifths having only a minor level of digitisation.

Companies that have already embedded digitisation in their strategy are frontrunners for greater material efficiency, since they more frequently use material efficiency measures intensively, are more likely to recognise further potential savings and their efficiency-saving approaches are also clearly more often highly digitised.

From the same author, check also
Eines von zwei Unternehmen macht Ökodesign digital

Innovation and Circular Economy in the Mountain Forest Supply Chain: How to Close the Loop?

Innovation and Circular Economy in the Mountain Forest Supply Chain: How to Close the Loop?

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Author: 
Sarah Whitaker, Euromontana
Publication Date: 
03/2017
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
Euromontana

Mountain areas face specific natural conditions, such as slope, climate, and soil types, that make the exploitation of mountain resources difficult.

Other challenges associated with connectivity and transport make economic activity all the more challenging.

The adoption of the circular economy will be particularly important in mountain areas which contain exceptional primary resources such as forests, water, and minerals, and provide ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration, clean water, landscapes, and recreation. Maximizing the value of extracted resources and managing them sustainably is particularly important for maintaining a high quality of life in mountain territories.The circular economy can create new economic opportunities that will provide much needed employment and economic growth in mountain areas.

The development of the circular economy in mountain areas will allow inhabitants to benefit from resources and services available in the mountains. It will also drive the development of new approaches, for example in governance, technology, or in the building of novel tools, in so doing providing new opportunities for jobs and growth in mountain regions.

This study focuses on the forest sector as the sector is particularly adapted to a circular approach in mountainous areas in Europe.

Slovenian companies and a circular economy: Slovenian Business Observatory 2017

Slovenian companies and the circular economy

Slovenian entrepreneur observatory

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Author: 
Karin Širec, Barbara Bradač Hojnik, Matjaž Denac, Dijana Močnik
Publication Date: 
03/2018
Country: 
Slovenia

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Contact: 
Barbara Bradač Hojnik

Since 2000, the “Slovenian Entrepreneurship Observatory” publishes a report annually providing analysis of the situation of Slovenian companies and insight into Slovenian entrepreneurship. In 2018 this report had a thematic focus on the circular economy (CE), with the authors centring in on the drivers and barriers to SMEs integrating CE into business practice.

This report first provides a theoretical framework for the CE, which aims to raise awareness and facilitate information exchange between companies and individuals looking to spread circular innovation. Simultaneously this report also provides an overview of the barriers companies face in transitioning towards circularity, which include a lack of comparable indicators to benchmark and track progress; cost of eco-design; administrative burden; access to finance and a lack of awareness about the concept itself: in 2017, a survey of businesses indicated only 32% had some understanding of what a circular economy is. This survey also revealed businesses perceive economic, environmental and regulatory opportunities as the main drivers towards circularity.

The report concludes with practical aspects of CE implementation at the level of enterprises, presenting a case study which highlights the situation and the possible use of eco-design in Slovenian SMEs operating in the construction sector and conclusions with recommended steps to overcome the barriers identified.

Scaling the Circular Built Environment: pathways for business and government

scaling the circular built environment cover page

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Author: 
WBCSD, Circle Economy
Publication Date: 
12/2018
Country: 
Switzerland

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Scope:

Contact: 
Brendon Edgerton
Harald Friedl

The built environment, consuming almost half of the world's resources extracted every year and responsible for a massive environmental footprint, is a fundamental sector in the circular transition.The circular economy has great potential to help meet global sustainability targets and the Paris Agreement's goals in particular.
Moving towards a circular built environment involves a shift in roles and business models for stakeholders active in this sector. However, barriers related to culture, regulations, market, technology and education are slowing down the transition.

The private and public sector need to create a level playing field in order for circular materials, products and services to become the new normal in the built environment. This requires bold leadership from both companies and policy-makers who have to transform the market (e.g. by introducing new valuation methods) and implement long-term policies that encourage the scaling of circular solutions (e.g. through circular procurement). Standardization, new forms of collaboration and co-creation processes are essential elements in the transition. Digital innovation, education and information sharing can further drive the change in mindset and culture that is needed to turn the circular built environment into reality.

Deposit-refund systems in Europe for one-way beverage packaging

Deposit-refund systems for one-way beverage packaging

ACR+ DRS report cover

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Author: 
Bilyana Spasova
Publication Date: 
03/2019
Country: 
Spain

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Key Area:

Scope:

Contact: 
Philippe Micheaux-Naudet

Within the discussion on possible instruments that policy-makers can use to achieve waste collection targets and implement the 2015 Circular Economy Action Plan, deposit-refund systems (DRS) are often cited as a promising & useful policy tool. Such DRS ask consumers to pay an additional visible amount of money – a “deposit” – on top of the product price and then refund this money back if the consumer brings back the product (or its empty packaging) to an approved collection point.

In this report, ACR+ explored DRS experiences across ten European countries: Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Relying on available facts and data, the report presents an informative overview of existing examples and approaches in Europe for one-way beverage packaging. This analysis concludes that the launch timing in relation to other waste management systems and the positive participation of producers are both decisive in determining the success of the system.

To learn more about the hands-on implementation of DRS in Europe, read the full report here.

Economía Circular y Empleabilidad de los Jóvenes en la Comunidad de Madrid

Circular Economy and Youth Employability in the Comunidad de Madrid
Author: 
Eva Ramón, Franco Llobera, Manuel Redondo
Publication Date: 
04/2018
Country: 
Spain

Language for original content:

Scope:

Contact: 
Eva Ramón

The Centro de Documentación Europea de la Universidad Francisco de Vitoria (European Documentation Centre, UFV) has completed a project titled Economía Circular y Empleabilidad de los Jóvenes en la Comunidad de Madrid (Circular Economy and Employability of Young People in the Autonomous Region of Madrid).

The outcomes include a report on communicating the circular economy through the lens of employment opportunities circular business models provide for young people. The project has also created a guide on communicating the circular economy to students, which introduces the subject, presents the 7R model and shows how innovative companies provide opportunities for employment in circular business.

2018_Wat_Sci_Tech_Incover_final publicado

Start-up of a microalgae-based treatment system within the biorefinery concept: from wastewater to bioproducts

Author: 
Enrica Uggetti, Joan García, Juan Antonio Álvarez and María Jesús García-Galán
Publication Date: 
12/2018
Country: 
United Kingdom

Language for original content:

Contact: 
Juan Antonio Alvarez Rodriguez

Within the European project INCOVER, an experimental plant uses low-energy photobioreactors to cultivate micro-algae and transform wastewater into bioproducts.

This article describes this new experimental plant and the start-up stage, starting from the new design of three semi-closed horizontal photobioreactors with low energy requirements, for microalgae cultivation (30 m3 total), using agricultural runoff and urban wastewater as feedstock.

The inflow nutrients concentration is adjusted to select cyanobacteria, microalgae able to accumulate polyhydroxybutyrates, which can be used for bioplastics production. Part of the harvested biomass is used as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) with secondary sludge to obtain biogas. This biogas is then cleaned in an absorption column to reach methane concentration up to 99%. The digestate from the AcoD is further processed in sludge wetlands for stabilization and biofertilizer production.

On the other hand, treated water undergoes ultrafiltration and disinfection through a solar-driven process, then it is pumped through absorption materials to recover nutrients, and eventually applied in an agricultural field to grow energy crops by means of a smart irrigation system. This plant presents a sustainable approach for wastewater management, which can be seen as a resource recovery process, more than a waste treatment.

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