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Report

Cerrar el círculo: el business case de la economía circular

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Author: 
Elena Ruiz , Paula Ruiz
Publication Date: 
07/2018
Country: 
Spain

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Contact: 
Elena Ruiz
Paula Ruiz

"Cerrar el círculo: el business case de la economía circular" (Closing the loop: the business case for a circular economy) is a report authored in 2018 by Foretica, which shows the latest trends in circular economy, a practical roadmap to guide companies towards a circular mindset as well as best practices from 9 companies that are leading the transition towards a circular economy in Spain.

Forética is a multi-stakeholder non-profit organisation working to promoting ethical and socially responsible policies at the core of institutional and corporate values. In 2017, Foretica launched the Circular Economy Action Group with 9 leading companies: Ecoembes, Endesa, Naturgy, IKEA Ibérica, ING, LafargeHolcim, Nestlé, OHL and Unilever.

Guia sobre Economia Circular i Verda al món local

Guide to Circular and Green Economy in the local world: How to get into action and tools for local entities

Guide to Circular and Green Economy in the local world: How to get into action and tools for local entities.

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Author: 
Xarxa de Ciutats i Pobles cap a la Sostenibilitat (Network for Cities and Towns towards Sustainability in Catalonia (Spain))
Publication Date: 
06/2018
Country: 
Spain

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The "Guide to Circular and Green Economy in the local world" was published as part of the 2016-2019 Business and Green Economy Economy Plan for Local authorities promoted by the Network of Cities and Peoples towards Sustainability. This guide is based on the experience of its authors as well as municipalities participating in the Workshops organised as part of the same Plan collaboration of the Generalitat of Catalonia. The respective contributions of the Business and Green Economy Plan working group channel important challenges and successes in promoting the circular economy by local authorites throughout this document.

The aim of the guide is to disseminate the circular economy concept and provide acitonable suggestions to local authorities (politicians, civil servants) in order to promote circular economy at different levels of governance, where the scope is both mainstreaming within public administration as well as private sector buy-in.

The guide first presents the concept of circular economy, strategies for implementation and the local authorities can play in this transition. The second part presents the steps a local entity can follow to define a strategy to boost the circular and green economy in its area. The guide also includes a workbook that with tools and materials to put into practice such a strategy and facilitate the transition to a circular economy.

Waste prevention in Europe - policies, status and trends in reuse in 2017

Waste prevention in Europe - policies, status and trends in reuse in 2017

Cover EEA report 4 2018

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Author: 
Henning Wilts, Bettina Bahn-Walkowiak, Ybele Hoogeveen
Publication Date: 
06/2018
Country: 
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

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Contact: 
Ybele Hoogeveen

This is the fourth EEA report in a series of annual reviews of waste prevention programmes in Europe as stipulated in the European Union (EU) Waste Framework Directive.

This review focuses on reuse and covers 33 national and regional waste prevention programmes that had been adopted by the end of 2017.

Article 11 of the Waste Framework Directive states that Member States should take appropriate measures to promote reuse and preparing for reuse such as encouraging the establishment and support of reuse and repair networks. The report describes how reuse is addressed in the waste prevention programmes and provides data on the status of and trends in reuse systems in Europe. Chapter 1 introduces the concept of waste prevention in a circular economy and describes the policy background. It explains the review's approach and defines key terms used. Chapter 2 investigates the existing waste prevention programmes, looking at their scope and reuse objectives, measures and indicators, as well as the sectors and stakeholders addressed. Chapter 3 examines the status of and potential for reuse for key product groups (i.e. textiles, electrical and electronic equipment, furniture, vehicles, and buildings and building components). Chapter 4 concludes with key findings and prospects for reuse in the context of the circular economy agenda.

The circular economy – a powerful force for climate mitigation

The circular economy – a powerful force for climate mitigation

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Author: 
Material Economics
Publication Date: 
06/2018
Country: 
Finland

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Contact: 
Sitra

This report investigates how a more circular economy can contribute to cutting CO2 emissions. It explores a broad range of opportunities for the four largest materials in terms of emissions (steel, plastics, aluminium, and cement) and two large use segments for these materials (passenger cars and buildings). The key conclusion is that a more circular economy can make deep cuts to emissions from heavy industry: in an ambitious scenario, as much as 296 million tons CO2 per year in the EU by 2050, out of 530 Mt in total – and some 3.6 billion tonnes per year globally. Making better use of the materials that already exist in the economy thus can take EU industry halfway towards net-zero emissions. Moreover, doing so often is economically attractive. Initiatives for a more circular economy therefore deserve a central place in EU climate and industrial policy.

Linear Risks

Linear Risks Report

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Author: 
Shyaam Ramkumar , Frido Kraanen, Rik Plomp , Brendan Edgerton , Arnoud Walrecht , Ines Baer, Peter Hirsch
Publication Date: 
05/2018
Country: 
Switzerland

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Contact: 
WBCSD

Society and businesses are becoming increasingly aware that the resources needed for products are not infinite. There is growing pressure on the availability of resources due to a variety of factors including the expected increase in global consumption of goods spurred by a growing global middle class.

The report aims to introduce the various business risks of common ‘linear economy’ business practices and start a dialogue with the financial and business community about their implications. Building on this report, there is an objective to explore further directions to better understand and model them. Hopefuly, these risks will one day become an integral part of investment decisions to ensure better investment decisions that achieve long-term stability and growth.

CEN Guidelines for integrated circular economy strategies at local and regional level

CEN Guidelines for integrated circular economy strategies at local and regional level

CEN Guidelines for integrated circular economy strategies at local and regional level

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Author: 
ACR+ (Jean-Pierre Hannequart, Philippe Micheaux Naudet)
Publication Date: 
05/2015
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
Philippe Micheaux Naudet (ACR+)

The present guidelines have been developed by ACR+ in the framework of its Circular Europe Network initiative (CEN: www.circular-europe-network.eu).

It aims at explaining the potential role of local and regional authorities, and at developing guidelines to help them draw up integrated and efficient circular economy plans. Even though acknowledging the broader concept, these guidelines focus mainly on materials, considering that it is difficult for local and regional authorities to encompass all topics at once and since material resources represent the core element of circular economy.

The guidelines clarify the circular economy concept from a local or regional authority's perspective (Part 1) and propose key steps and elements to include in a local or regional circular economy strategy (Part 2).

The present document should serve as a set of first guidelines in the subject, particularly for the members of the Circular Europe Network, and is intended to be completed with examples of best practices to set such strategies, as well as concrete cases of circular economy.

The document is also available in Catalan, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. For more information, please click here.

Renewable Materials for a Low-Carbon and Circular Future

Renewable Materials for a Low-Carbon and Circular Future

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Author: 
Essity, IKEA, Royal DSM and Tetra Pak
Publication Date: 
04/2018
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
Stella Chavin
CE100

Achieving the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Agreement climate targets will hinge upon the global transition to a low-carbon circular economy. Replacing finite and fossil-based materials with responsibly managed renewable materials could decrease carbon emissions whilst reducing dependency on finite resources.

However, the role that renewable materials can play in the circular economy is often under-rated, and, so far, most of the conversation has focussed on biodegradability, instead of the role they could play in reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling streams. The aim of the Collaborative Project was to start a conversation on the role of renewables in the circular economy, and in order to do this, set out the opportunities and challenges that companies face when using/shifting to renewable materials today and propose a shared vision for the future.

Public Procurement for a Circular Economy

Public Procurement for a Circular Economy

Circular Procurement brochure

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Author: 
ICLEI
Publication Date: 
10/2017
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EU

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Contact: 
Ashleigh McLennan

In order to support public purchasers to leverage support for a transition to a circular economy, in October 2017 the European Commission published 'Public Procurement for a Circular Economy'. This brochure contains a range of good practice case studies as well as guidance on integrating circular economy principles into procurement.

Money Makes The World Go Round

Money Makes The World Go Round

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Author: 
Frido Kraanen
Publication Date: 
03/2016
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
CE100

This report is the result of a collaborative project which was carried out by members of the Circular Economy 100, a program curated by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation. The participants aimed to: (1) understand the implications of a circular economy on the business and financing models of companies; (2) determine how a transition to a circular economy can be supported and accelerated by the financial system; and (3) co-develop and share communication strategies and tools to make the transition clear and tangible to our colleagues, clients, and academics.

Circular Business Models for the Built Environment

Circular Business Models for the Built Environment

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Author: 
Guglielmo Carra, Arup, Nitesh Magdani, BAM
Publication Date: 
03/2017
Country: 
EU

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To support the transition to the circular economy, governance, regulations and business models will play a crucial role. More importantly, circular business models (CBMs) would allow the retention of an asset at its highest value over time and support enhancement of natural capital. Different CBMs will be required at different stages of a lifecycle of an asset and may work independently or collaboratively. Successful implementation of these business models will require action from designers, suppliers, service providers, contractors and end-of-life companies by sharing materials, systems, energy, as well as information and services.

Keeping Customer Connections

Keeping Customer Connections

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Author: 
Anna Vinogradova, Walmart, David Rakowski, PA Consulting
Publication Date: 
03/2018
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Stella Chavin

The circular economy offers a new way of looking at the relationships between markets, customers and our use of resources. It uses innovative new business models and designs, disruptive technologies and reverse logistics to transform the current ‘take, make, dispose’ economic model. Circular initiatives work to three principles of designing out waste and pollution, keeping products and materials in use and regenerating natural systems. 

Highlighting that many retailers are already tapping into circular economy thinking, this report is the output of a Collaborative Project carried out by Arizona State University, Cranfield University, eBay, Kingfisher, PA Consulting, Philips, Stuffstr and Wrap to identify new ways of working to generate value, discover new business opportunities and reduce resource costs - strategies which fundamentally change the relationship these retailers have with customers.

Delivering the circular economy: a toolkit for policymakers

Delivering the circular economy: a toolkit for policymakers

Delivering the circular economy: a toolkit for policymakers

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Author: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Publication Date: 
06/2015
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Contact: 
Maja Johannessen

The circular economy offers business leaders and government a clear opportunity for long-term growth that is less dependent on cheap materials and energy, and which can restore and regenerate natural capital. This report provides an actionable toolkit for policymakers who wish to embark on a circular economy transformation. It identifies eight key insights, details policy options, opportunities and barriers, and demonstrates how the tools may be applied in a pilot study of Denmark. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation developed the circular economy toolkit with key collaborators the Danish Business Authority and Danish Environmental Protection Agency, analytical support by the McKinsey Center for Business and Environment, macroeconomic and policy analysis by NERA Economic Consulting, and funding from MAVA Foundation.

From waste to resource productivity: evidence and case studies

From waste to resource productivity: evidence and case studies

From waste to resource productivity: evidence and case studies

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Author: 
Government Chief Scientific Adviser
Publication Date: 
12/2017
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Contact: 
Dr Richard Leese

All societies produce waste, though its characteristics and what happens to it depend on cultural, economic and political factors at local, national and global scales. New business models, technological innovations and social enterprise have the potential to reduce waste. Policymakers have a key role to play in supporting these efforts by fostering better communication between stakeholders; through regulation that prioritises reuse and quality recycling; and by encouraging resource efficiency through education, research and manufacturing initiatives.

From waste to resource productivity: main report

From waste to resource productivity - main report

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Author: 
Government Chief Scientific Adviser
Publication Date: 
12/2017
Country: 
United Kingdom

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Contact: 
Dr Richard Leese

Waste nationally and globally is increasingly problematic and challenging to policymakers. It is a problem that is increasing in scale and scope. It matters to all of us for a series of reasons:

  • There is simply so much waste. In a country with a small land area and a large population, the sheer bulk of waste is in and of itself a problem;
  • As humans congregate in cities around the world, the production of waste has become highly concentrated and that creates particular challenges for its collection and disposal:
  • Much waste is harmful. The scale of that harm has become global. It harms both humans and the other species with which we share the planet. That harm comes in many forms.

How the Circular Economy can benefit from the Digital Revolution

How the circular economy can benefit from the digital revolution

How the Circular Economy can benefit from the Digital Revolution

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Author: 
Romain Pardo
Publication Date: 
04/2018
Country: 
Belgium

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Contact: 
Rebecca Castermans

In a circular economy, materials are more durable and easier to repair, reuse and recycle while waste is turned into a resource. In addition, processes from production to waste management become more resource efficient. Innovative business models enable companies to create value by selling services rather than products. Digital technologies will be pivotal in bringing about this systemic change. The European Union has to make the most of digital solutions for the benefit of a circular economy. This requires addressing the barriers to their uptake, enabling the free flow of data across borders, fostering trust in the data economy, and maximising synergies between the digital and circular economy agendas.

Circularity Gap Report

Circularity Gap Report

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Author: 
Marc de Wit , Jelmer Hoogzaad, Shyaam Ramkumar, Harald Friedl , Annerieke Douma
Publication Date: 
01/2018
Country: 
Netherlands

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Contact: 
Melanie Wijnands

Our world economy is only 9.1% circular, leaving a massive ‘"circularity gap". This alarming statistic is the main output of this first Circularity Gap Report, in which we launch a metric for the circular state of the planet. The Circularity Gap Report provides a framework and fact-based to measure and monitor progress in bridging the gap, year on year. Being able to track and target performance via the Global Circularity Metric will help us engage in uniform goal-setting and guide future action in the most impactful way. Closing the circularity gap serves the higher objective of preventing further and accelerated environmental degradation and social inequality. The transition to circularity is, therefore, a means to an end. As a multi stakeholder model, a circular economy has the ability to unite a global community behind an action agenda, engaged and empowered both collectively and individually. Its systemic approach boosts capacity and capability to serve societal needs, by embracing and endorsing the best humankind has to offer: the power of entrepreneurship, innovation and collaboration.

The Role of Business in the Circular Economy: Markets, Processes and Enabling Policies

The role of business in the circular economy: Markets, processes and enabling policies

The circular economy is attracting significant interest worldwide, as evidenced by the numerous government strategies, business commitments and partnerships devoted to its development. At the EU level, the Action Plan for the Circular Economy and several other policy documents have demonstrated a strong commitment to move towards a low-carbon and circular economy. While the calls for a new economic model grow louder, it is clear that the transformation of markets and industries on a large scale will not be an easy achievement. It will require well-designed and ambitious policies to foster the transition as well as new business models. Against this background, CEPS brought together executives from major multinational companies as well as representatives of business associations, non-governmental organisations and research institutes to form a Task Force charged with tackling the immense challenges associated with the circular economy. This report is the outcome of their deliberations. It analyses the key obstacles that need to be addressed, explores numerous policy areas at the EU and national level where support can act as a catalyst for market transformation, and puts forward actionable policy recommendations.

The Circular Economy: A review of definitions, processes and impacts

The Circular Economy: A review of definitions, processes and impacts

The Circular Economy: A review of definitions, processes and impacts

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Author: 
CEPS Task Force
Publication Date: 
04/2017
Country: 
Belgium

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Contact: 
Isabelle Tenaerts

Transforming the linear economy, which has remained the dominant model since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, into a circular one is by no means an easy task. Such a radical change entails a major transformation of our current production and consumption patterns, which in turn will have a significant impact on the economy, the environment and society. Understanding these impacts is crucial for researchers as well as for policy-makers engaged in designing future policies in the field. This requires developing an in-depth knowledge of the concept of the circular economy, its processes and their expected effects on sectors and value chains.

This paper reviews the growing literature on the circular economy with the aim of improving our understanding of the concept as well as its various dimensions and expected impacts. On the basis of this review, it attempts to map the processes involved and their application in different sectors.

The paper suggests that research on the circular economy is currently fragmented across various disciplines and there are often different perspectives and interpretations of the concept and the related aspects that need to be assessed. This fragmentation is also evident in the available studies that adopt different approaches in calculating the impacts, which makes efforts at comparing the results from different sources very challenging.

Finally, this paper suggests that there is limited information on the indirect effects on the economy (e.g. impacts on the value chain or changes in consumption spending patterns) as well as the social impacts of the circular economy transition.

Packaging & Circular Economy

Packaging & Circular Economy

As is the case with Mr. Jourdain, who was unaware of what he was writing, industries involved in packaging have already implemented the circular economy model. Results in material recycling are relevant proof thereof. Industries are not getting involved in this process out for ideological reasons but because it often makes sense from an economical point of view. Since we were lucky enough not to be starting from scratch, we offered a tangible approach through illustration for each main material and/or packaging category from: glass to paper, cardboard, food cartons, steel, aluminum, wood, and plastic materials. This also includes the energy consumed by the different materials and the waste produced by all the different activities involved. By digesting some of the best existing or developing practices, we wish to make the circular economy model a fully-fledged part of the packaging sector.

A Future-Proof Built Environment

A Future-Proof Built Environment

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Author: 
Ben Kubbinga, Aglaia Fischer, Elisa Achterberg, Shyaam Ramkumar, Marc de Wit (Circle Economy), Petran van Heel, Bram van Amerongen, Madeline Buijs, Hein Brekelmans (ABN AMRO)
Publication Date: 
12/2017
Country: 
Netherlands

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Contact: 
Petran van Heel

The report highlights real-life and practical examples on how to rethink the way we create the built environment, one that currently uses 40% of all extracted minerals worldwide. It offers a systematic view of the sector and identifies clear levers for circular change. With learning by doing in mind, Circle Economy and ABN AMRO share the insights gained during the build of the first fully circular building in Amsterdam’s financial district: ABN AMRO’s Cirl pavilion. With this report, Circle Economy wants to highlight the possibilities in the built environment sector – with all positive economic, social and environmental consequences that a circular building and planning process entails. This report follows the launch of Circle Economy’s Circle Built Environment Programme, a new programme that builds on the expertise the organisation has gained over the last four years in identifying and implementing circular strategies across industries.

Cement, concrete & the circular economy

Cement, concrete & the circular economy

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Author: 
CEMBUREAU
Publication Date: 
09/2016
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EU

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Contact: 
Nikos Nikolakakos

The following publication provides an overview of why the cement and concrete industry is central to the circular economy and what can be done to leverage the opportunities.

Achieving 'Growth Within'

Achieving growth within

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Author: 
SYSTEMIQ, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie und Nachhaltigkeit (SUN)
Publication Date: 
01/2017
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EU

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Contact: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation

The report identifies ten attractive circular innovation and investment priorities for Europe until 2025, totalling €320 billion. Despite the favourable financial context,   investment in circular economy opportunities is still generally too low. The Foundation's previous research Growth Within outlined a long-term circular economy vision for Europe; this new report identifies the most important investment opportunities along with the policy reforms and business actions needed to unlock them. The report focuses on the mobility, food and built environment value chains, which together represent 60% of consumer expenditure and 80% of resource use.

Growth Within: a circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

Growth Within: a circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

Growth Within: a circular economy vision for a competitive Europe

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Author: 
Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Stiftungsfonds für Umweltökonomie und Nachhaltigkeit (SUN) , Deutsche Post Foundation , McKinsey Center for Business and Environment
Publication Date: 
06/2015
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EU

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Contact: 
The Ellen MacArthur Foundation

In a circular economy, growth comes from ‘within’, by increasing the value derived from existing economic structures, products and materials. This major report quantifies the benefits for Europe – in terms of growth, household income, and environmental outcomes – of adopting a circular development path compared with our current linear one. Incorporating in-depth analysis of three of Europe’s largest basic needs, mobility, food and the built environment, the report provides a vision of how the circular economy could look, and highlights wide-ranging implications for government and business leaders.

Circular economy in Europe - Developing the knowledge base

Circular economy in Europe — Developing the knowledge base

Circular economy in Europe — Developing the knowledge base

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Author: 
Almut Reichel (EEA) , Mieke De Schoenmakere (EEA) , Jeroen Gillabel (VITO)
Publication Date: 
01/2016
Country: 
EU

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Contact: 
Almut Reichel

The report describes the concept of the circular economy and outlines its key characteristics. It draws attention to both the benefits and challenges in transitioning to such an economy and highlights possible ways to measure progress.

Circular by design - Products in the circular economy

Circular by design - Products in the circular economy

Circular by design - Products in the circular economy

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Author: 
Mieke De Schoenmakere (EEA) , Jeroen Gillabel (VITO)
Publication Date: 
06/2017
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EU

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Contact: 
Mieke de Schoenmakere

The report explores the circular economy from a product perspective, applying a systemic approach and transition theory. Drivers of product design and usage are discussed in the context of emerging consumption trends and business models. For governance to be effective, it has to address the product life-cycle and the societal context determining it. Indicators and assessment tools are proposed that can help fill the current data and knowledge gaps.

The Circular Phone Report

The Circular Phone report

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Author: 
Circle Economy, Fairphone, ABN Amro, Allen & Overy, ING, PGGM, NBA, Circularise, Sustainable Finance Lab
Publication Date: 
01/2018
Country: 
Netherlands

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Contact: 
Harald Friedl

The Circular Phone report provides practical answers to common financing pitfalls for circular businesses, using Fairphone as the real-life example. All learnings and contract templates created during the project are now available as open source and ready for other companies to apply to their products.

This report gives companies the tools to jumpstart and run circular business models where ownership of products is retained to a certain degree. This incentivises companies to create high-quality and durable products, while customers enjoy the performance of a product without the hassle. So far, businesses striving to implement “Product-as-a-Service” models have had the challenge of reconciling the need to find financing parties with the complexities of their own business model.

To achieve a financeable model for the Circular Fairphone Service, the Community of Practice created a blueprint for Fairphone’s business model. Through the creation of a legal template – a 1st Circular Service Contract- and a financial cash flow tool, the group has proven that the gap between the businesses and financiers can be bridged. One of the other concrete and practical outcomes was a 5-year cash flow projection that enables financiers to assess the benefits and risks of their investment.

 

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